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TCP/IP Model


September 18, 2016
Published By : Pratik Kataria
Categorised in:


  • It’s not a single protocol, it’s a suite of protocols
  • TCP/IP is the first set of protocols used in internet
  • Allows computers to communicate/share resources across a network.
  • Work on TCP/IP started in 1970s.
    • Funded by US military
    • Advance research project Agency (ARPA)
    • Network protocols of ARPANET were upgraded.
  • The modern internet sits on top of the TCP/IP technology
    • Used as a standard
    • To bridge the gap between non-compatible platforms
    • All computers connected to the internet understands TCP/IP

TCP/IP Protocol Suite

  • Refers to family of protocol
  • The protocols are built on the top of connectionless topology
  • Data sent from one node to another as a sequence of datagrams.
  • Each datagram sent independently
  • The datagram corresponds to the same messages may follow different routes

TCP/IP Family Members


What does TCP do?

  • TCP provides a connection-oriented reliable services for sending messages.
    • Split a message into packets.
    • Reassemble packets at destination
    • Resend packets that were lost in transit.
  • Interface with I/P :
    • Each packet forwarded to IP for delivery.
    • Error control is done by TCP

What does IP do?

  • IP transports datagrams (packets) from the source nodes to  destination node.
  • Responsible for routing the packets.
  • Breaks a packet into smaller packets, if required.
  • Unreliable service
    • A packet may be lost in transit
    • Packets may arrive out of order
    • Duplicate packets may be generated.