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September 18, 2016
Published By : Pratik Kataria
Categorised in:



  • A kernel is a central component of an operating system.
  • It acts as an interface between the user applications and the hardware.
  • The aim of the kernel is to manage the communication between the software (user level applications) and the hardware (CPU, disk memory etc)
  • Part of UNIX OS that contains code for
    • Controlling execution of process
    • Scheduling process fairly
    • Allocating main memory
    • Allocating secondary memory
    • Handling peripherals

Characteristics of kernel

  • Loading and existence into main memory
  • Mostly written in C and assembly language
  • Use programs accesses kernel services via system call interface
  • Provides its services transparently


  • Kernel mode or kernel space
  • User mode or user space

Operating system architectures

  • OS tends to be complex because
    • Provides many services
    • Support variety of hardware and software
  • Monolithic


  • Layered
  • Micro


  • Exo